3.2 Citing References in Text
Whenever you quote or paraphrase the other’s work, you are required to cite its source. Citations to sources are placed within the text of the paper to briefly identify the sources and enable readers to locate the source of the cited information in the reference list.
In APA Style, references are cited in text with an author-date citation system and they are listed alphabetically in the reference list.
- In-text references include the author's last name and the year of publication enclosed in parentheses.
- Citations are placed within sentences and paragraphs to indicate what information is being quoted or paraphrased and whose information is being cited.
- Each reference cited in text must appear in the reference list, and each entry in the reference list must be cited in text.
|Works by a single author
Last name of author and year of publication are inserted in the text at appropriate points.
e.g. In a recent study of inclusive education (Salvia, 2007), ...
If the name of author appears as part of the narrative, cite only the year of publication in parentheses.
e.g. Salvia (2007) considered inclusive education as ...
|Works by two authors
When a work has two authors, always cite both last names every time the reference occurs in the text. Join the names with an ampersand (&) in parentheses.
e.g. Regarding the case studies (Robinson & Stern, 1997), ...
In the narrative text, join the names with the word "and".
e.g. Robinson and Stern (1997) demonstrated ...
|Works by multiple authors
When a work has three, four, or five authors, cite all authors the first time the reference occurs.
e.g. Mok, Lee, Li, Ma, and Pang (2003) found ...
In all subsequent citations, include only the last name of the first author followed by "et al." and the year of publication.
e.g. Mok et al. (2003) found ...
When a work has six or more authors, cite only the first author followed by “et al.” and the year of publication for the first and subsequent citations.
e.g. Smith et al. (2005) suggested that ….
|Works by associations, corporations, government agencies, etc.
||The names of groups that serve as authors are usually written out each time they appear in the text. When appropriate, the names of some corporate authors are spelled out in the first reference and abbreviated in all subsequent citations.
e.g. In the study of Hong Kong Institute of Education (HKIEd, 2006) … HKIEd (2006) found that ….
|Works with no author
When a work has no author indicated, use the first two or three words of the work's title (omitting any initial articles and capitalizing each word) as the in-text reference.
e.g. the book Corporate Creativity (1997)
Place the title in quotation marks if it refers to an article or chapter of a book, or italicize it if it refers to a book or periodical.
e.g. the findings ("Medium of Instruction", 2004)